The Scientific Theory of Co-evolution
Fundamental Theorem of Co-evolution of Total Co-dependence of Two Organisms:
In co-evolution of a co-dependent trait -- unlike in evolutionary adaptation to widespread fixed physical features of the environment, e.g., land, water, and air -- there may be nothing to adapt to because the corresponding co-dependent trait in the other organism may be locally absent.
Co-evolution by means of random mutation is virtually impossible where the co-dependent traits in both organisms are fatal in the absence of the corresponding co-dependent trait in the other organism.
Even a co-dependent trait that is not fatal or harmful in the absence of the corresponding co-dependent trait provides no benefit in natural selection when the corresponding co-dependent trait is absent.
Two totally co-dependent organisms may have irreducibly complex sets of pairs of co-dependent traits involving multiple organ systems in one or both organisms -- for example, a bee must be able to both digest nectar and find flowers.
The Fundamental Theorem of Co-evolution of Total Co-dependence may be a barrier to evolution even where irreducible complexity is not.
Evolutions of predator-prey and parasite-host relationships are often presented as false proof of co-evolution. Evolution in these relationships does not require simultaneous mutations in the other organisms, and often it is better for the first organism if there is no corresponding defensive change in the other organism.
Actually, though, if "theory" is defined as a complete scientific explanation for some observed phenomenon, then these principles of co-evolution do not constitute a "theory" -- they are just criticisms of evolution theory. The same goes for Intelligent Design. However, there is no rule that says that a scientific theory may not be criticized without presenting a plausible alternative theory at the same time.
Labels: Non-ID criticisms of evolution